V Kacinik1, M Lyon1,2, M Purnama1, RA Reimer3, R Gahler4, TJ Green2 and S Wood2,5
1Canadian Centre for Functional Medicine, Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada; 2Faculty of Land and Food Systems and Food, Nutrition and Health Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 4Factors Group Research & Development, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada and 5InovoBiologic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Introduction: Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. Methods: In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kgm 2) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Results: Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P¼0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P¼0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P¼0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (Po0.05). Conclusion: The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions. Nutrition and Diabetes (2011) 1, e22; doi:10.1038/nutd.2011.18; published online 12 December 2011
I am often asked by both students and practitioners what is meant by supply chain management. The term, like so many before it, has entered the everyday language of both researcher and practitioner. I hope that this book will provide an agenda for discussion for the experienced researcher and practitioner and an introduction for the novice. The seeds of this book were sown in my early research career during my time working with British Airports Authority and Slough Estates as well as a number of major developers and construction fi rms. Those early attempts to emulate manufacturing left a great impression upon me. Yet over the intervening period relatively little has been written about the subject of supply chain management (SCM) in construction. I am convinced of the importance of SCM whether as a source of tools and techniques in projects or as a higher level theoretical framework for conceptualising the activities of our project organisations. I hope that this book will be read by undergraduate and postgraduate students of construction, project management, engineering and architecture, as well as quantity surveyors. I hope to show through these pages, and through the discussion of both concepts and practice, that SCM has an important part to play in both academic discussion and practice. I feel privileged to have worked with a prestigious team of academics and practitioners on this project. I hope you enjoy the fi nal product as much as I enjoyed the journey that led up to the production of this book.